Computer systems need periodic upgrades for various reasons:
- User requirements change.
- Upgraded software packages require new hardware.
- New hardware offers enhanced performance.
Changes to the computer may cause you to upgrade or replace components and peripherals. Research the effectiveness and cost for both upgrading and replacing.
If you upgrade or replace a motherboard, you might have to replace other components, such as the CPU, heat sink and fan assembly, and RAM. A new motherboard must fit into the old computer case. The power supply must also be compatible for the new motherboard and be able to support all new computer components.
Begin the upgrade by moving the CPU and the heat sink and fan assembly to the new motherboard. These items are much easier to work with when they are outside of the case. Work on an antistatic mat, and wear a wrist strap to avoid damaging the CPU. If the new motherboard requires a different CPU and RAM, install them at this time. Clean the thermal compound from the CPU and heat sink. Remember to use thermal compound between the CPU and the heat sink.
Different CPU architectures are installed in these common socket connection designs:
- Single-Edge Connector (SEC)
- Low-Insertion Force (LIF)
- Zero-Insertion Force (ZIF)
- Land Grid Array (LGA)
- Pin Grid Array (PGA)
SEC and LIF sockets are no longer commonly used. Consult the motherboard documentation on how to install the CPU.
Jumpers are upright gold pins on the motherboard. Each grouping of two or more pins is called a jumper block. A motherboard might use a Dual In-line Package (DIP) switch instead of jumpers. Both methods are used to complete electrical circuits that provide a variety of options supported by the motherboard. The motherboard documentation indicates which pins to connect to accommodate the various options:
- CPU voltage
- CPU speed
- Bus speed
- Cache size and type
- Flash BIOS enabled
- Clear CMOS
- Size of system memory
Newer motherboards rarely have jumpers. Advanced electronics allow these options to be configured from within the BIOS setup program.
CMOS Battery Installation
A CMOS battery might need to be replaced after several years. If the computer does not keep the correct time and date or loses configuration settings between shutdowns, the battery is most likely dead. Make sure that the new battery matches the model required by the motherboard.
To install a CMOS battery, follow these steps:
Step 1. Gently slide aside, or raise, the thin metal clips to remove the old battery.
Step 2. Line up the positive and negative poles to the correct orientation.
Step 3. Gently slide aside, or raise, the thin metal clips to insert the new battery.