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Online Reference Shelf--Government--Election Information--Election 2000

About This Page:  This page was first created on December 10, 2000, after a clutter of Quick Links regarding news of the election practically overtook Chabot Library's Election Information page.  Given this historical event, and the knowledge that books are not yet available and articles are scattered on this subject, we opted to create this Web Pathfinder to pages related to the Election.  We will do our best to provide links to web pages on this topic.  Please do not see this as the only source.  You can definitely find many articles on this subject in our Periodicals databases.   Click here on how to find articles on this subject.  Some of the documents linked below (such as Court Opinions) can only be retrieved through a reader of Page Document Files (.pdf) such as Adobe AcrobatAdobe Acrobat is NOW available on most of our reference computers.  This page will be in construction for awhile so please have your patience.  We at Chabot Library are open to any comments or suggestions for improvement.  To contact us, please email Norman Buchwald, Information Literacy and Technology Librarian,  at nbuchwald@clpccd.cc.ca.us

June Update: "Latest Information" section will continue to be "News Stories from December," but with two news stories added regarding the Miami Herald's recount results and Florida's sweeping passage of election reform.  The "Court Cases" section has been modified to mainly cover the main U.S. Supreme Court and Florida Supreme Court Cases.  Go to FindLaw's directoriesor CNN's Indepth: Reviewing the Vote for information on any of the other many court cases (including ones not in Florida).  Remaining parts of the Presidential Contest and Election 2000 (General) should be developed this Fall.  Keep your patience as we are also still working on growing our Online Reference Shelf and Library Research Guides.  Any suggestions for web sites, please contact Norman Buchwald at nbuchwald@clpccd.cc.ca.us

Quick Link (Click Here First for Research): Tips on Finding Articles To This Subject

Presidential Contest, Election 2000 (George W. Bush v. Al Gore)

News Stories from DecemberPresidential Contest Overview  | Court Cases  |  Legislative Actions
Biography/Who's Who  |  Election Laws in States  |  The Electoral College  | Campaign 2000 web sites
Current Campaigns, Bills, Laws for Election Reform  |  Political Websites  |  Bush/Gore Presidential Debates
Bush/Gore Campaign Chronology/Timeline  |  Close Presidential Races in the Past  |  Miscellaneous

Quick Link: Latest Information

Quick Link: Electoral Map, 2000

Quick Link: Frequently Asked Questions about the
  Electoral College
        From the Electoral College Home Page Includes answers
        to questions such as what if a state's election is tied or in
  dispute and if electors can switch their votes to the other
  candidate and against their state's wishes.  Also, take a
        look at the Washington Post's Political Junkie's November
  20 column

Quick Link: Election Laws in the State of Florida
         From the Florida's 2000 Statutes, Title IX explains the legal
         procedures for elections.  Most of the laws related
         to questions regarding the current presidential election will
         be found in Chapters 102, 103, and 104 (but a few may be
         in the other chapters)

Quick Link: Alameda County Election Returns (11/2000)

Quick Link: National Election Returns (11/2000)
         From CNN's All Politics site, includes returns by president,
         the entire United States House of Representatives and
  Senate, Governors, ballot measures from around the
         country and a list of party switches that happened in
         Congress.  Most up to date returns on the state
         of Washington's Senate race is available at
  Washington's Secretary of State's web page

Quick Link: Summary of the Election 2000 Dispute and Paper Topics Ideas

News Stories From December and some Updated Stories Since For up to date information regarding recounts done by media and/or nonprofit organizations, or other news stories about the Bush Administration, or regarding the past election or election reform,  go to Reuter's Politics News, AP's Politics and Elections News, browse CNN or Washington Post, or take a look at Florida Newspapers.

  • Florida Lawmakers Approve Election System Overhaul

  •        http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A47275-2001May5.html
     
  • Bush Still Wins Florida in Newspaper Recount

  •         http://www.cnn.com/2001/ALLPOLITICS/04/04/florida.recount.01/index.html
    Miami Herald's results if its painstaking recount of all ballots in Florida
     
  • Results on Florida Vote for President in December (at CNN.com's All Politics web site)

  •         http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2000/results/FL/frameset.exclude.html
    Includes results by county in Florida.  For up to date news on the presidential election in Florida go to Reuters' Politics News, and AP's Politics and Elections News
     
  • Gore Would've Gained More Votes in Lake County

  •         http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/local/lake/orl-recount-12192000-story.story
     
  • Biographies of Bush Cabinet Members

  •          http://www.cnn.com/interactive/allpolitics/0012/bush.cabinet/frameset.exclude.html
     
  • Electoral College Results--December 18, 2000

  •         http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/12/18/electoral.feature/index.html
     
  • Gore's Concession Speech

  •         http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2000/transcripts/121300/t651213.html
     
  • Bush's Victory Speech

  •         http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2000/transcripts/121300/bush.html
     
  • United States Supreme Court Opinion, Bush V. Gore December 12, 2000

  •          http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/uscdecision1212.pdf
     
  • Florida House Votes to Approve Bush Electors

  •         http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/12/12/election.wrap/index.html
  • Transcipt to U.S. Supreme Court OralArguments, BUSH V. GORE, December 11, 2000

  •         http://www.cnn.com/LAW/trials.and.cases/case.files/0011/reviewing.the.vote/t031211.html
  • Transcript to U.S. Supreme Court Oral Arguments, BUSH V. PALM BEACH COUNTY CANVASSING BOARD, December 1, 2000

  •         http://www.cnn.com/LAW/trials.and.cases/case.files/0011/reviewing.the.vote/t031211.html
      Court Opinion http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/usc00-836final.pdf
           Florida Supreme Court Response:   http://a4.g.akamaitech.net/7/4/622/000/abcnews.go.com/media/politics/sc00-2346-remand.pdf
    For transcript on the U.S. Supreme Court opinion, click here.  Then select, U.S. Supreme Court opinion.  You need Adobe Acrobat to view the file.  If you're at the Library, we have the decision available in paper form, at the reference desk.  For pdf files on all court cases related to the presidential election dispute, click here
     
  • Transcript to Florida Supreme Court Opinion, Gore V. Harris, December 7, 2000

  •   http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/fscgoreharrisop1208.pdf
     
  • Associated Press' Election News

  •         http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/pl/el/?u
  • Reuters' Politics News

  •         http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/pl/nm/?u
     
  • Los Angeles Times' Politics and Campaign Wires

  •         Politics Wire:  http://www.latimes.com/wires/wpolitics/
            Campaign Wire:  http://www.latimes.com/news/politics/elect2000/pres/wire2/
     
  • CNN's All Politics

  •         http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/
     
  • Washington Post's On Politics

  •         http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/politics/
    Presidential Contest Overview
  • Online Newshour: Election 2000

  •         http://www.pbs.org/newshour/election2000/index.php3
    Contains overview of entire election.  The election dispute topics are available under all its categories.  So click one on the left and when the new page comes up scroll down until you find a desired news story, analysis, speech, or interview.  Stories, interviews, speeches, etc. go back to 1999
     
  • Washington Post's Series of the Election Deadlock

  •         http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A54719-2001Jan27.html
    Scroll down and on the right side you will see links to the eight part story the Washington Post ran in January, 2001 looking back in detail on the Election Dispute.  Also contains an interview with President George W. Bush
     
  • Other Washington Post Stories

  •         http://washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A3698-2001May31.html
    Scroll down and on the right side you will see many updated links to stories devoted to the Election 2000 deadlock including stories on Florida's efforts toward election reform
     
  • CNN In-Depth's Reviewing the Vote

  •         http://www.cnn.com/LAW/trials.and.cases/case.files/0011/reviewing.the.vote/
     
  • Election 2000: Constitutional Crisis or Democracy at Work?

  •         http://www.americanpresident.org/Crisis_or_Democracy.htm
     
  • CNN Election 2000's Election Timeline

  •   http://www.cnn.com/interactive/allpolitics/0011/election.timeline/navigation.html#7
     
  • Recount Chronology

  •         http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/12/13/got.here/index.html
     
  • Election Moments (Photo Essay from Time Magazine)

  •         http://www.time.com/time/photoessays/electiontimeline/
    Court Cases
    Listed below are the most likely sought after documents regarding the significant court cases to the presidential dispute.  In addition, significant statutes and laws, as well as previous court case opinions used are also listed.  For a more complete list, look at the directory provided by FindLaw
    For most of these documents, you will need Adobe Acrobat to view them

    Directories  |  U.S. Supreme Court  |   Florida Supreme Court  | Significant Laws and Court Cases
     

    Directories
     
  • FindLaw's Legal News: Election 2000, the Florida Deadlock

  •         http://news.findlaw.com/legalnews/us/election/election2000.html
    U.S. Supreme Court
     
  • Bush V. Gore

  •         http://news.findlaw.com/legalnews/us/election/election2000.html#00-949
    This is the court case that Bush appealed in response to the Florida Supreme Court Case, Gore V. Harris, that ruled in favor of Gore's contest of the certified election in the state of Florida, and ordered a manual recount of "undervotes" in all counties in the state of Florida.  The U.S. Supreme Court ordered the recounts to stop hours later after they began, pending review of this case
    You need Adobe Acrobat to view most of these documents
    The Opinion
    http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/uscdecision1212.pdf

    The Oral Arguments
    http://www.cnn.com/LAW/trials.and.cases/case.files/0011/reviewing.the.vote/t031211.html

    U.S. Supreme Court's Declaration of a Stay
     
    http://a388.g.akamai.net/f/388/21/1d/www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2000/resources/uscbushstay.1209.pdf
    (Placing Recounts on Hold that was decided from the Florida Supreme Court case, Gore V. Harris)

    Briefs Submitted Before the U.S. Supreme Court
    Bush Brief:     
    http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/uscbushbrf1210.pdf

    Gore Brief:
    http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/uscgorebrief1210.pdf
     

  • Bush V. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board

  • http://news.findlaw.com/legalnews/us/election/election2000.html#ussc
    This is the court case that Bush appealed to the Florida Supreme Court Case,   that ruled in favor of Gore's protest of Secretary of State, Katharine Harris's observance of the initial deadline date of November 14 for ballots accepted for the November 18 certification of Florida's votes (all ballots except for absentee overseas ballots)
    You need Adobe Acrobat to view most of these documents
    The Opinion
      http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/usc00-836final.pdf

    Florida Supreme Court Response to The Opinion
     http://a4.g.akamaitech.net/7/4/622/000/abcnews.go.com/media/politics/sc00-2346-remand.pdf

    The Oral Arguments
    http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2000/transcripts/s101201.html

    Briefs Submitted Before the U.S. Supreme Court
    Bush Brief:
     
    http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/uscbushbrief1128.pdf
    Gore Brief:
     
    http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/uscgorebrief1128.pdf
    Palm Beach Canvassing Board Brief:
     
    http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/uscpbccbbrf1128.pdf
     


    Florida Supreme Court
     

  • Gore v. Harris

  •         http://news.findlaw.com/legalnews/us/election/election2000.html#cv00-2808
    This is the court case that Gore appealed in response to the Circuit Court Case (listed below) also of the same name.  This court case is Gore's contest of the certified election results in the state of Florida.  Here, Gore's attorneys argued that particular ballots from particular counties should be recounted.  The Florida Supreme Court declared that all "undervotes" (those that the machine did not read a presidential choice) from all Florida's counties will be recounted.  The U.S. Supreme Court halted the recount only hours after it began to take place.  The U.S. Supreme Court's Consideration of this case is Bush V. Gore
    The Opinion
     
    http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/fscgoreharrisop1208.pdf

    Briefs Submitted Before the Florida Supreme Court
    Gore Brief:
     http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/fscgorebrf1206.pdf
    Bush Brief:
     
    http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/fscbushamdbrf1206.pdf

    Bush V. Gore (U.S. Supreme Court's Response)
    http://www.chabotcollege.edu/Library/onlineref/election2000#supreme

  • Palm Beach County Canvassing Board V. Harris

  •         http://news.findlaw.com/legalnews/us/election/election2000b.html#flsc
    The Opinion
     http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/fsc1121decision.pdf

    Opinion After Remand from U.S. Supreme Court
    http://a4.g.akamaitech.net/7/4/622/000/abcnews.go.com/media/politics/sc00-2346-remand.pdf

    Briefs Submitted Before the Florida Supreme Court


    Significant Laws and Court Cases
     

  • Texas Statute on Processing Electronic Voting System Results

  •         http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/txchadlaw.html


    Legislative Actions

  • News Stories on Florida Legislature
  • Florida House Votes to Approve Bush Electors
            http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/12/12/election.wrap/index.html


    Biography/Who's Who
    While the links below will lead you to BRIEF biographies about these historical figures, as of right now, you would get more information if you search articles on them.  Some biographical information below (such as online interviews) can be additional "goodies" to articles you find in our subscription databases.

    Search in our databases:  Ebsco Host, Infotrac California Newspapers, Encyclopedia Britannica, and SIRS Knowledge Source.  When searching for a person as subject, enter the last name and then the first name.  As there will be a lot of articles that will probably not focus on biographical background, enter a search adding the word "biography" to your figure.  Your search would appear like this:  harris katherine AND biography.  You may have to be flexible with your searches.  If you are searching for information about these figures in relation to the election, add the word, election: harris katherine AND election.

    Using search engines on the World Wide Web will  as of right now lead you to many inaccurate and very biased web sites, so I strongly recommend searching for articles for more in-depth information.  The likeliness of finding a book in our collection on any of the figures listed below is currently slim, at best.  We may have a few in our Encyclopedias or other biographical resources we have in our reference collection

    Directories  |  Albert Gore  |  George W. Bush  |  Katherine Harris  |  Jeb Bush  |  Bob Butterworth
    Joseph Lieberman  |  Richard Cheney  |  Ralph Nader  |  Pat Buchanan  |  Florida Supreme Court
    United States Supreme Court  |  Other Court Judges  |  Gore's Attorneys  |  Bush's Attorneys
    Gore's Spokesmen  |  Bush's Spokesmen  |  Florida Legislature (Key Players)
     

    Directories
  • Online Reference Shelf--Biographical Resources

  •         http://www.chabotcollege.edu/Library/onlineref/Biography.html


    Albert Gore
    Presidential Candidate (Democrat), was Vice President of the United States

  • Who2 Profile: Al Gore

  •         http://www.who2.com/algore.html
     
  • Becoming Al Gore

  •   http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/democracy/gore/stories/gore/index.html
     
  • From the Biography Channel

  •         http://www.biography.com/perl/frame_this.cgi?page=http://search.biography.com/
            print_record.pl%3Fid%3D15250
     
  • An Interview with Al Gore (Online Newshour)

  •         http://www.pbs.org/newshour/election2000/candidates/gore_index.html
    George W. Bush
    Presidential Candidate (Republican), now 43rd President of the United States
  • Who2 Profile: George W. Bush

  •         http://www.who2.com/georgewbush.html
     
  • Living the Bush Legacy

  •         http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/democracy/bush/stories/bush/index.html
     
  • From the Biography Channel

  •         http://www.biography.com/perl/frame_this.cgi?page=http://search.biography.com/
            print_record.pl%3Fid%3D23367
     
  • An Interview with George Bush (Online Newshour)

  •         http://www.pbs.org/newshour/election2000/candidates/bush_index.html
    Katherine Harris
    Secretary of State, Florida, and Co-Chair of Bush Campaign in Florida
  • From Information Please

  •         http://www.infoplease.com/spot/katherineharris1.html
     
  • From National Association of Secretary of States

  •         http://www.nass.org/states/flbio.htm
     
  • From Secretary of State of Florida's Web Site

  •         http://www.dos.state.fl.us/oss/background.html


    Jeb Bush
    Governor of Florida, George W. Bush's brother

  • From National Governors' Association

  •        http://www.nga.org/governors/1,1169,C_GOVERNOR_INFO^D_124,00.html
    Bob Butterworth
    Attorney General, Florida and Gore Elector
  • From Florida Attorney General's Home Page

  •         http://web.archive.org/web/20001130063826/http://legal.firn.edu/agoffice/ag_bio.html
    Joseph Lieberman
    Vice Presidential Candidate (Democrat) and U.S. Senator from Connecticut
  • From the Biography Channel

  •          http://search.biography.com/print_record.pl?id=23590
    Richard Cheney
    Vice Presidential Candidate (Republican); was Secretary of Defense in Bush Sr. Administration; Vice President of the United States
  • From the Biography Channel

  •   http://search.biography.com/print_record.pl?id=23589
    Florida Supreme Court Justices
  • From the Supreme Court of Florida Web Site

  •         http://www.flcourts.org/pubinfo/sct.html#justices
    United States Supreme Court Justices
  • Justices of the Supreme Court

  •         http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/justices/fullcourt.html
    Click on the name of the justice to get biographical data.  On top of the data, there is a link to Supreme Court opinions written by that justice Biographical data is excellent and you get direct information to their beliefs through their writings for particular opinions
     
  • Virtual Supreme Court

  •     http://www.law.upenn.edu/fac/bwoodhou/vsc/
    A classroom project with profiles written by law students.   Click on the name of each justice and then read the profiles.  Quality of profiles are pretty good and each profile is followed by bibliographical references


    Other Judges/Elected Officials

  • Theresa LePore (Supervisor of Elections for Palm Beach County)

  •         http://www.pbcelections.org/Supervisor.htm
     
  • Carol Roberts (Palm Beach County Canvassing Board Member)

  •         http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/time/2000/11/27/recounter.html
    Gore's Attorneys
  • Gore Team

  •         http://www.cnn.com/LAW/scotus/election.justices/gore.names.html
     
  • David Boies (Profile from CNN)

  •         http://www.cnn.com/2000/LAW/11/14/boies.profile.reut/
     
  • David Boies (Interview on Wired Magazine)

  •         http://www.wirednews.com/wired/archive/8.10/boies.html


    Bush's Attorneys

  • Bush Team

  •         http://www.cnn.com/LAW/scotus/election.justices/bush.names.html
     
  • Theodore Olsen

  •        http://www.cnn.com/LAW/scotus/election.justices/olsen.html


    Gore's Spokesmen

  • Warren Christopher (Former Secretary of State)

  •         http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/bio/christopher_bio.html
    Bush's Spokesmen
  • James Baker (Former Secretary of State)

  •         http://search.biography.com/print_record.pl?id=12498


    Florida Legislature (Key Players)

  • Bios of Florida Legislative Leaders

  •   http://quest.cjonline.com/stories/121200/gen_1212007363.shtml
    Election Laws in States
  • Election Laws in the State of Florida

  •   http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Index&Title_Request=IX#TitleIX
    From the Florida's 2000 Statutes, Title IX explains the legal procedures for elections.  Most of the laws related to questions regarding the current presidential election will be found in Chapters 102, 103, and 104 (but a few may be in the other chapters)
     
  • Texas Statute on Processing Electronic Voting System Results

  •         http://news.findlaw.com/cnn/docs/election2000/txchadlaw.html
     
  • California Election Codes

  •         http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/calawquery?codesection=elec&codebody=&hits=20


    The Electoral College

  • Electoral College 2000

  •         http://www.nara.gov/fedreg/elctcoll/2000res.html
     
  • Frequently Asked Questions About the Electoral College

  •         http://www.nara.gov/fedreg/elctcoll/faq.html
     
  • Electoral College Home Page

  •         http://www.nara.gov/fedreg/elctcoll/index.html
     
  • The CQ Researcher's Report on the Electoral College

  •         http://washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/elections/cq_issues120800.htm
    Available as a special report from the Washington Post.  You can also get the print version at the Reference Desk, the December 8, 2000 Issue
     
  • OCLC Net First Hot Topics: The Electoral College

  •         http://www.oclc.org/oclc/new/hottopics/001113.htm
    An excellent directory to quality web sites on the topic of the Electoral College
     
  • Political Junkie's Columns on the Electoral College

  •         http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/campaigns/junkie/archive.htm
      November 20, 2000
      September 15, 2000
    Campaign 2000 Web Sites
  • Bush/Cheney Campaign Web Sites From Politics 1

  •         http://www.politics1.com/bush.htm
    Scroll down the page to get to the list of sites
     
  • Gore/Lieberman Campaign Web Sites From Politics 1

  •         http://www.politics1.com/gore.htm
    Scroll down the page to get to the list of sites
    Election Reform
     
  • Florida Lawmakers Approve Election System Overhaul

  •         http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A47275-2001May5.html
    Political Web Sites (Regarding Presidential Race)
    Note: all web sites listed below do have a political bias.  Also, some sites have been greatly changed.  To look up archived sites (as they were at particular times), go to the Internet Archive
  • Count Our Votes

  •         http://www.CountOurVotes.com/
    From the Florida Democratic Party, a web site to urge citizens to write to Florida legislators
     
  • Nader Trader

  •         http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:www.nadertrader.org/+%22Nader+Trader%22&hl=en
    Current version of web page: http://www.nadertrader.org
    News Stories about Vote Trading web sites:  http://www.nadertrader.org/media/media.html
    This was the original web site developed for those who wished to vote for Nader, wanting him to win 5% of the vote for federal matching funding in 2004, but lived in a close call state where either Bush or Gore would win.  This web site suggested voters find someone who lives in a definite Bush or Gore state on the Internet where the voter in that state would vote for Nader while the Nader voter votes for Gore.  Many other Nader trading web sites came into existence, some including Inter-Relay Chat forums or lists of emails for contact.  States such as California shut down some of the sites on the ground that they were breaking that state's election laws
     
  • Vote With America

  •         http://www.votewithamerica.com/
    A campaign site to encourage anyone to contact any elector from any state (has focus to ask Bush electors to vote for Gore-- to see if three electors may change their loyalty and respect the popular vote).  From a political organization called Citizens for True Democracy, a left leaning organization
     
  • Election 2000: Things to Do

  •     http://homeschool.crecon.com/election2000.html
    An organization on home schooling encourages religious conservatives to be active and informed during the time of the presidential dispute
    Bush/Gore Presidential Debates
  • Presidential Debate #1, University of Massachusettes, October 3, 2000

  •         http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2000a.html
     
  • Presdential Debate #2, Wake Forest University, NC, October 11, 2000

  •         http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2000b.html
     
  • Presidential Debate #3, Washington University, Missouri, October 17,2000

  •         http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2000c.html
     
  • Vice-Presidential Debate, Danville, Kentucky Centre, October 5, 2000

  •         http://www.debates.org/pages/trans2000d.html


    Bush/Gore Campaigns Timeline (Including Before Election Day)
    This category will likely be developed soon.

    Close Presidential Races in the Past
    Whether by the popular vote or by the vote of the electoral college

    Rutheford B. Hayes/Samuel Tilden  |  Benjamin Harrison/Grover Clevelend
    John Quincy Adams/Andrew Jackson  |  Thomas Jefferson/Aaron Burr
    John F. Kennedy/Richard Nixon  |  Jimmy Carter/Gerald Ford
    Books and Web Sites on Presidential Elections
     
     

    Rutheford B. Hayes/ Samuel Tilden (1876)
      Electoral Map: http://www.presidentelect.org/e1876.html

    Election outcome unknown and dragging on for weeks?  Separation between the popular vote and the electoral vote? The electoral outcome determined by only one vote?  The media pronouncing one winner and then proclaiming another winner before all the election returns are in?  The possibility of faithless electors?  States having close outcomes for president?  Florida being a state that determines the president?  The Florida Supreme Court  determining the winner?  Florida sending two slates of electors?  U.S. Supreme Court justices helping to determine the winner?  Strange ballots in Florida?  Disenfranchisement of Black voters?  No, this isn't the election of 2000.  It's the election of 1876!  Find out why many pundits are comparing the 2000 election with this other election that wasn't decided for months and not until the day before the Inauguration!
  • Hayes vs. Tilden: The Election Controversy of 1876-1877

  •         http://elections.harpweek.com/9Controversy/overview-controversy-1.html
     
  • Tilden-Hayes Election of 1876

  •         http://www.discovery.com/guides/history/historybuff/library/reftilden.html
     
  • The Campaign and Election of 1876        http://www.americanpresident.org/KoTrain/Courses/RBH/RBH_Campaigns_and_Elections.htm

  •  
  • Election of 1876

  •         http://library.thinkquest.org/12587/contents/timeline/1870/1876.html
     
  • Rutheford Birchard Hayes

  •         http://www.ipl.org/ref/POTUS/rbhayes.html
     
  • Article on Rutherford B. Hayes

  •         http://www.cnn.com/2000/ALLPOLITICS/stories/12/11/recount.hayes.ap/index.html
     
  • Tilden, Samuel Jones

  •         http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0848739.html


    Benjamin Harrison/Grover Cleveland (1888)
     Electoral Map: http://www.presidentelect.org/e1888.html
    Before Election 2000, the 1888 election was the last one where a presidential candidate won the electoral college while losing the popular vote.  Grover Cleveland, who was the incumbent, lost to Benjamin Harrison (233 to 168 electoral votes) while winning by more than 100,000 popular votes.  Grover Cleveland, however, ran again in 1892 against Harrison and regained the Presidency

  • Campaign and Election of 1888       http://www.americanpresident.org/KoTrain/Courses/BH/BH_Campaigns_and_Elections.htm

  •  
  • Grover Cleveland

  •         http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/7/0,5716,24747+1+24360,00.html
     
  • Benjamin Harrison

  •         http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/3/0,5716,40173,00.html#Article


    John Quincy Adams/Andrew Jackson (1824)
            Electoral Map: http://www.presidentelect.org/e1824.html
    John Quincy Adams is the only other president who is also a son of a president.  Like George W. Bush, he also lost the popular vote, but in Adams' case he also lost the electoral vote!  Andrew Jackson actually won both.  However, with four candidates running in this election, none of the four candidates actually obtained a majority of all electoral votes, combined.  So the choice for President went to the U.S. House of Representatives, the majority picking John Quincy Adams.  However, Andrew Jackson ran again in 1828 and unseated John Quincy Adams with both a decisive popular and electoral majority

  • Campaign and Elections of 1824 and 1828

  •  http://www.americanpresident.org/KoTrain/Courses/JQA/JQA_Campaigns_and_Elections.htm
     
  • Tally of the 1824 Electoral College Vote

  • http://www.archives.gov/digital_classroom/lessons/electoral_college_tally_1824/electoral_college_tally_1824.html
    Thomas Jefferson/Aaron Burr (1800)
         Electoral Map: http://www.presidentelect.org/e1800.html
    The United States began the Nineteenth Century with a Presidential election dilemma that later required a Constitutional Amendment.  With the original version of the Constitution, the person who earned the most electoral votes became President while the person who came in second became Vice President.  However, that original plan changed with the election of 1800 where both Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr received the same number of electoral votes (73).  To make things further complicated, the lame-duck House were Federalists who had to decide the election between two members of the opposition party: The Democratic-Republicans.  The House voted 36 times before reaching the required majority of ten states voting in favor
  • Campaigns and Elections of Thomas Jefferson

  • http://www.americanpresident.org/KoTrain/Courses/TJ/TJ_Campaigns_and_Elections.htm
     
  • Election of 1800

  •         http://library.thinkquest.org/12587/contents/timeline/1800/1800.html
     
  • Election of 1800 (Atlantic Monthly)

  •         http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/policamp/parton.htm
    John F. Kennedy/Richard Nixon
         Electoral Map: http://www.presidentelect.org/e1960.html
  • Campaign and Election of 1960

  •  http://www.americanpresident.org/KoTrain/Courses/JFK/JFK_Campaigns_and_Elections.htm
    Jimmy Carter/Gerald Ford
         Electoral Map: http://www.presidentelect.org/e1976.html
  • Campaign and Election of 1976

  •   http://www.americanpresident.org/KoTrain/Courses/GF/GF_Campaigns_and_Elections.htm


    Books and Web Sites on Presidential Elections
    For reference books, go to the reference shelves and search by Call Number at Chabot Library.  If you have any questions, ask a Librarian (left side of the reference/circulation desk when you enter the main room of the Library)
     

  • A Statistical History of the American Presidential Elections

  •         REFERENCE  Call Number: JK197.P4
     
  • Encyclopedia of the American Presidency

  •         REFERENCE  Call Number: JK511 .E53 1994 (4 volumes)
     
  • Books on Presidential Elections to Check Out

  • Go to our catalog: http://tinyurl.com/8mo5z/.  Select Chabot and then click on "Enter."  Select "Additional" from the options above the search form.  A new search form will appear.  Enter the following words in this order: Presidents United States Election.  Select the "Subject" button below.  What you do next is browse the list of subject headings.  Each subject heading will give you a list of book titles.  All titles that are highlighted in blue are not checked out.  Those with the green asterisks on the left are those available at Chabot Library (not Las Positas Library)
     
  • Campaigns and Elections (The American President)

  •        http://www.americanpresident.org/KoTrain/courses/index/Index_campaigns_and_elections.htm
     
  • President Elect
            http://www.presidentelect.org/
  • Miscellaneous
  • Palm Beach County Ballot

  •         http://a388.g.akamai.net/f/388/21/15m/www.cnn.com/2000/LAW/11/09/reno.weekly.pol/
            findlaw.sample.ballot.jpg

    election 1996 library research guide--  The Library has a library research guide devoted to the 2000 election, along with its regular elections web page (which includes a special section on the 2003 California governor recall election).  For information on the 1996 election, search databases such as EbscoHost, Lexis-Nexis, and the ProQuest Diversity news sources or look at University of Michigan's Government Documents in the News 1996, Online NewsHour Election Night '96, FrontLine: The Choice '96, and The MoJo Wire--Race for the White House.


    General Election Information Page

    Online Reference Shelf Home Page

    Library Home Page

    Chabot Home Page



    This web site was last updated on June 1, 2001.  This web page is still under construction.
     If you have any questions or want to suggest any additions or find any dead links, please contact
    Norman Buchwald, Information Literacy and Technology Librarian.
     ©2000, Chabot College